English Grammar Tutorials

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  • Simple Conjugate
  • Chapter 16. Conjunction (Cont'd...)


    16.2 Coordinating conjunction

    Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four kinds.

    (a) Copulative or cumulative conjunction: They copulate/ fasten together or make union. And, as well as, also, too, not only ... but also, further, moreover, both etc. are examples of copulative conjunction.

    (b) Adversative conjunction: It contrast one idea to the other. For example:
    He is poor but honest.
    The student made many mistakes; however the teacher did not rebuke him.
    The boy is physically challenged but tries to establish himself.
    But, yet, still, however, only, nevertheless, whereas, on the contrary, only, etc.
    fall in this class.

    (c) Alternative/ disjunctive conjunctions: They provide choice between two ideas or things. For example:
    Rise early or you will not complete your work.
    He will neither do nor make other to do.
    Or, nor, either ... or, neither ... nor, else, otherwise, etc.
    fall in this group.

    (d) Illative conjunction: It denotes an inference, i.e. forming of conclusion. There is a relation of cause and effect between the joining clauses. For example:
    (i) Get yourself ready; for it has already been too late.
    (ii) The student did not study hard; therefore (so, consequently) he failed in the examination.
    (iii) There is fog at Dumdum; therefore the plane has been diverted. (The plane has therefore been diverted/ the plane, therefore, has been diverted).
    Therefore, so, consequently, for, them, etc.
    are examples of illative conjunctions.

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