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English Grammar Tutorials

  • Preface & Content
  • Letter, Word, Sentence
  • Parts of speech
  • Pronoun
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
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  • Number and Gender
  • Person and Case
  • Mood and Modal verbs
  • Tense
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  • Simple Conjugate
  • Chapter 13. Narration (Cont'd...)

    narration

    A few more examples (cont'd...)

    Direct: “ Curse it!” exclaimed the driver, “who could have foreseen such ill luck?”
    Indirect: The driver exclaimed with an oath that nobody have foreseen such ill luck.

    Direct: Gobind said, “ This is my coat.”
    Indirect: Gobind said that this was his coat.

    Direct: He said, “I will do it now or never.”
    Indirect: He said that he should do it then or never.

    13.8 Reporting verbs used in different sentences

  • Assertive: Say, tell, reply, answer, remark, comment, observe, inform, state, mention, declare, report, relate, narrate, explain, affirm, deny, refuse, assert, assure, retaliate etc.
  • Interrogative: Ask, inquire, demand, want to know, wonder, urge etc.
  • Imperative: Advise, command order, ask, beg, request, forbid, implore, solicit, beseech, tell, etc.
  • Operative: Wish, pray, earnestly, desire, long for etc.
  • Exclamatory: Exclaim with joy/ sorrow/ surprise/ disgust/ joyfully/ sorrowfully/ surprisingly/ disgustingly, cry out, wish, applaud, confess, with regret/ regretfully/ with repentance etc. according to the case/ sense/ emotion.
  • Remark: To summarize, we say, three things are to be given special attention in this regard. First is to mind the rules of sequence of tenses as the sentence in the reported speech becomes sub-ordinate clause in almost all the cases. Second is to take care of changing personal pronouns, as they refer to according to their cases, person, number and gender. Thirdly, whatever the sentences are in the reported speech, they become in the form of assertive sentence (i.e. sub+verb+object) in almost all cases and they are connected with the reporting verbs with proper connectives.

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