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English Grammar Tutorials

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  • Chapter 14. Punctuation (Cont'd...)

    narration

    14.1 Comma (cont'd...)

    (vi) To make an ellipsis (omission) of the same kind;
    To err is human, and to forgive, divine.

    (vii) Before or after a reported speech:
    Ram said, “I shall not go to school today”.
    “I shall not go there”, said Rahim.

    (viii) Before or after the case of address:
    I am quite warm, Caroline, I assure you.
    Friends, listen to me.
    I ask you gentleman, to consider my case to elect me as the M.P.
    “Friends, Roman, countrymen, lend me your ears.”

    (ix) Before and after the words, phrases or clauses.
    I shall not however, want to miss you.
    A snake, 4 feet long, was caught by the snake charmer.
    His work, to say the least , is not admissible.
    Example, as proverb says, is the sincerest form of precept.

    (x) To mark off adverbial phrases or clauses, and also participial phrases that
    might be expanded into clauses.
    The prisoner, having been convicted of the crime of which he was accused,
    must make up his mind to suffer the penalty.
    Disappointed of the prize, he left the place.

    But when the participle qualifies the noun as an adjective, the comma should not be used.

    I saw a dog lying asleep on the street.

    (xi) Before and after gerundial infinitives used in an explanatory or parenthetical sense.
    I am, to tell the truth, unable to help you.
    To sum up, the man was convicted of several charges.

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