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Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

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Memory of water

1.2.5 Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education I Laboratory


Lab 5 Measurement of Human Blood Pressure with Sphygmomanometer

Developed by Prova Biswas


Blood Pressure (BP) is the force or pressure which the blood exerts on the wall of blood vessels. When the left ventricle contracts and pushes blood into the aorta the pressure produced within the arterial system is called systolic blood pressure and in the complete cardiac diastole stage, the heart is resting following the ejection of blood, the pressure within the arteries is called diastolic blood pressure. In adult normal systolic BP ranges about 110-130 mm Hg and the diastolic BP ranges about 70-85 mm Hg in adult.

Clinical significance: Blood pressure, more than the normal range is called hypertension and blood pressure less than the normal is called hypotension.

Classification of hypertension in adults


Causes of hypertension

i. Primary hypertension: Idiopathic

ii.Secondary hypertension: a. Renal: Primary sodium retention, rennin producing tumor, hyper activation of rennin-angiotensis-aldosterone system, renal artery stenosis etc., b. Endocrine: thyroid disorder, hypercalcaemia, adrenal carcinoma, aldosteronism, Cushing syndrome, hyperactivity of antidiuretic hormone, adrenalin, noradrenalin etc., c. Increased cardiac output, d. Rigidity of aorta, e. Itragenic (physician induced), f. Cardiac arrhythmia, g. Atherosclerosis etc.

Factors influencing prognosis of hypertension:

Risk factors Age (men aged >55 years, women aged >65 years), smoking, dyslipidaemia, family history of premature cardiovascular disease, abdominal obesity (abdominal circumference >102 cm for men, >88 cm for women), c-reactive protein >1 mg/dl.

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