B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

1.2.5 Anatomy Physiology and Health Education I

clotting time

Lab 1 Determination of clotting time with the help of Wrighting's method (cont'...d)

Therefore, if there is haemorrhage (i.e. clotting time is more than the normal range) we can guess few possibilities:


Blood platelets count is bellow 150000/ cubic mm of blood.

Vitamin K deficiency

Vitamin K is essential for synthesis of factor II, VII, IX, and X. Syntheses of these factors are impaired and hemorrhagic disease is progressed due to Vit K deficiency.


Bleeding disease that causes excessive bleeding especially in men.

Hemophilia A: Factor VIII is abnormal and less biologically active. About 1 in 10000 men suffers from classical haemophilia in United State.

Hemophilia B or Christmas disease: Factor IX is deficient.

Both of these factors are transmitted genetically from female chromosomes. Therefore, women do not have chance of haemophilia due to deficiency of these factors.

Von Willebrand's disease

Factor VIII has two parts, a large component and a small component. The smaller component is more important in intrinsic pathway of blood clotting and loss of this component causes the classical haemophilia. Sometimes haemophilia is seen due to deficiency of the large component, called Von Willebrand's disease.

When the clotting time is lower than the normal range we can guess there might be thromboembolic condition inside the tissue:

Thrombus: An abnormal blood clot developed inside the blood vessels.

Emboli: Tiny parts of breakdown thrombi are called emboli.

Causes of thromboembolic condition: i. Rough endothelial surface caused due to atherosclerosis, infection or trauma. ii. Slow blood flow.

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