**B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals**

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

**Pharmacy study material**

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

**B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals**

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

**Pharmacy study material**

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

3.5.3 Pharmacology I

There are two possible error in this type of experiments like clinical trial: type I error and type II error.

Before, explaining the eror we need to define the `null hypothesis' and `alternate hypothesis'.

#### Null hypothesis

#### Alternate hypothesis

#### Type I error

#### Type II error

##### Type I error calculation

##### Reference range of individuals:

##### P value:

The possibility of the difference of mean of two group to be zero.

The possibility of the mean difference other than zero.

When we find the null hypothesis false but actually it is true, then the error is defined as type I error ($/alpha$).

When we find a null hypothesis but it is incorrect.

The mean of a data points $x$ as $\bar{x}=\sum{x/n}$. The variance could be calculated as
$\sigma^2=\sum(x-\bar{x})^2/(n-1)$. Where $\sigma$ is the standerd deviation of the data point.

95% of the samples should lie between
$Mean \pm 1.96 \times \sigma$ ranges.

Standard error of mean SE = $\sigma/ \sqrt{n}$

Standard error of a proportion or percentage =$\sqrt{P(100-P)/n}$

SE of differences between two mean $SE_{diff} = \sqrt{\sigma^2_1/n_1 +\sigma^2_2/n_2}$

It is the probability of obtaining the null hypothesis true. It must be $<0.05$ when the $n$ is 6-20 and $<.001$ when n is 100. If the P value is $<0.05$, we can reject the null hypothesis and there is $(100-0.05 \times 100)$ or 95% chance of the result to be significant.

If the /emph{P} value is $>0.05$, we can say that there is insufficient data to reject the null hypothesis
and the result is insignificant.

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