B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

3.5.3 Pharmacology I

Diazepam structure

Lab 7 Evaluation of muscle relaxation action of Diazepam using Rotarod (Con't...d)

There are two possible error in this type of experiments like clinical trial: type I error and type II error.
Before, explaining the eror we need to define the `null hypothesis' and `alternate hypothesis'.

Null hypothesis

The possibility of the difference of mean of two group to be zero.

Alternate hypothesis

The possibility of the mean difference other than zero.

Type I error

When we find the null hypothesis false but actually it is true, then the error is defined as type I error ($/alpha$).

Type II error

When we find a null hypothesis but it is incorrect.

Type I error calculation

The mean of a data points $x$ as $\bar{x}=\sum{x/n}$. The variance could be calculated as $\sigma^2=\sum(x-\bar{x})^2/(n-1)$. Where $\sigma$ is the standerd deviation of the data point.

Reference range of individuals:

95% of the samples should lie between $Mean \pm 1.96 \times \sigma$ ranges.

Standard error of mean SE = $\sigma/ \sqrt{n}$

Standard error of a proportion or percentage =$\sqrt{P(100-P)/n}$

SE of differences between two mean $SE_{diff} = \sqrt{\sigma^2_1/n_1 +\sigma^2_2/n_2}$

P value:

It is the probability of obtaining the null hypothesis true. It must be $<0.05$ when the $n$ is 6-20 and $<.001$ when n is 100. If the P value is $<0.05$, we can reject the null hypothesis and there is $(100-0.05 \times 100)$ or 95% chance of the result to be significant.

If the /emph{P} value is $>0.05$, we can say that there is insufficient data to reject the null hypothesis and the result is insignificant.

< Prev.Page   1   2   3   4  5   6   Next page>