B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water


Characteristics of human bones

Phalanges or finger bones

(i) There are 14 phalanges, three in each finger and two in the thumb
(ii) They articulate with metacarpal bones and with each other
(iii) Each contains base (proximal end), shaft (middle) and head (distal end).

Pelvic girdle

(i) The bones of pelvic girdle are: paired hipbones, sacrum and coccyx
(ii) Hip bones are made up of three bones-ilium, ischium and pubis
(iii) Pelvic cavity ((bony pelvis) is formed by the bones of the pelvis
(iv) The cavity contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, the pelvic colon, and the rectum
(v) The pelvis has an antero-inferior, a posterior, two lateral pelvic walls; and an inferior pelvic wall, also called the pelvic floor
(vi) The space enclosed by the pelvic girdle, below the pelvic brim is called true pelvis or lesser pelvis
(vii) The space enclosed by the pelvic girdle, above and in front of the pelvic brim is called false pelvis or greater pelvis.


(i) It is the longest and strongest bone of the body
(ii) The head is almost spherical and fits into hip bone to form hip joint
(iii) In the centre of head there is small depression for the attachment of the ligaments of the head of the femur.

Tibia and Fibula

(i) Tibia is the long slender bone in the leg
(ii) The proximal extremity is broad and flat which presents two condyles for articulation with the femur at knee joints
(iii) The distal extremity of tibia forms the ankle joint with talus and fibula
(iv) Fibula is the long slender bone in the leg
(v) The upper extremity of fibula articulates with the lateral condyles of tibia forming proximal tibiofibular joint and lower extremity articulates with tibia to form lateral malleolus.

Tarsal and metatarsal bones

(i) Tarsal is the proximal region of the foot
(ii) There are seven tarsal bones including talus, calceneus, navicular, cuneiform (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and cuboid bones
(iii) The joints between tarsal bones is called intertarsal joints
(iv) The intermediate pregion of the foot (metatarsul) is consisting of five metatarsal bones
(v) The metatarsal bones are composed of head, shaft and base.


(i) There are 14 phalanges arranged in a similar manner to fingers
(ii) Each phalanx consists of base, shaft and head
(iii) The joints between phalanges are called interphalangeal joints..

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