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B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Joints and their classification

Classification of fibrous joints

a) Suture

Fibrous joint, composed of a thin layer of irregular connective tissue and present between bones of the skull. The no of suture in individual varies. There are two types of suture: synarthroses: immovable, present in adults; amphiarthroses: slightly movable, present in children. Suture absorbs shock in the skull

b) Syndesmoses

Fibrous joint, composed of a thin layer of irregular connective tissue, arranged as a bundle (ligaments), allowing the joints to move slightly. eg. amphiarthroses: tibiofibular joints, gomphosis or synarthroses: teeth and their sockets in the maxillae, and mandible.

c) Interosseous

Fibrous joint, composed of a thin layer of irregular connective tissue, arranged like a substantial sheath and permits slightly movement. eg. radioulnar joints and tibiofibular joints.

Classification of cartilaginous joints

a) Synchondroses

Two articulating bones are connected by hyaline cartilage. eg. epiphyseal plates (connection between epiphysis and diaphysis), joint between first rib and sternum.

b) Symphyses

Though the bones are covered by hyaline cartilage, the bones are connected by the flat discs of fibrocartilages. eg. joints between manubrium and body of the sternum, joints between anterior surfaces of hip bones, intervertebral joints of vertebrae.

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