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B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Synovial joints: structure

1. Synovial cavity is present in synovial joints.

2. Bones are covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage), which reduces the friction during movement.

3. Synovial joints are surrounded by the articular capsule, which is composed of two layers: outer fibrous membrane layer and the inner synovial membrane layer.

4. The fibrous membrane layer is composed of dense irregular connective tissue which helps the bones from dislocation during movement.

5. The fibers of the fibrous membrane in some joints form ligaments which hold the bone together in joints.

6. Synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluids, which is a viscous, pale yellow fluid, consisting of hyaluronic acid (secreted by fibroblactic cells of synovial membrane), interstitial fluid (filtered from blood) and phagocytic cells. Hyaluronic acid acts as lubricating agent during movement and interstitial fluid supplies nutrition and oxygen to synovial cells as well as removes the carbon dioxide and other waste products from bone cells. Phagocytic cells remove the microbes and debris.

7. Bursae: Sac like structure (bursae) is present in some synovial joints (knee and shoulder joints) to alleviate the frictions.

8. Tendons: Synovial (tendon) sheaths (tube like bursae) are also present to reduce frictions in some synovial joints (shoulder, ankles, fingers, toe, wrists, ankle).

Cracking sounds in fingers

Oxygen and carbon dioxides are pooled in the synovial cavity from the blood vessels during expand of the cavity to fill up the partial pressure in the cavity. These gases are present as bubbles in the cavity. When the fingers are bent, the volume of the cavity decreases and the pressure inside the cavity increases; the bursts of the bubbles due to increased pressure create the cracking sounds.

Synovial joint structure

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/00/ca/da/00cada004beec74f88380f1efdf6e5bb.jpg

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