B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Synovial joints: movement

Classifications of movements at Synovial joints

1. Gliding

Simple movements, where flat bone surfaces move back and forth and from side to side with respect to one another. eg intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

2. Angular

There is increase and decrease in angle between articulating bones during movement. Types: i. flexion: there is decrease in angles. ii. extension: there is increase in angles. iii. lateral flexion: when intervertebral joints are involved and the movement is along the frontal plane. iv. hyperextension: continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position. v. abduction: movement of a bone away from midline. vi. aduction: movement of a bone towards midline. vi. circumbduction: movement of the distal end of body part in a circle.

3. Rotation

A bone moves in a circle in it's own longitudinal axis.

4. Elevation

Superior movement of a part of the body.

5. Depression

Inferior movement of a part of the body.

6. Protraction

Movement of a part of the body anteriorly in the transverse plane.

7. Retraction

Movement of the protracted part of the body back to the normal anatomical position.

synovial movement

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