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B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Bones and Skeleton

Functions of bone and skeletal system

1. Support: The skeletal system is the structural framework of the body as well as for muscles and skin.

2. Protection: The skeletons protect the internal organs from any kind of external injury (example, rib cage protects the oesophagus, stomach and liver).

3. Movement: The skeletal system along with the muscular system and central nervous system helps the locomotion of the body as well as the purposeful movement of the body parts.

4. Blood cell formation: The blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes) are formed in the red bone marrow (connective tissue) within certain bones from the pluripotent stem cells.

5. Triglyceride storage: Triglycerides are stored as chemical energy reserve in the yellow bone marrow, present in the bone.

6. Bones provide attachment points to the muscles for smooth performing their activities like movements, contraction and relaxation of muscles.

7. Axial skeleton of thorax assists in breathing.

8. Teeth help to disintegrate the foods.

6. Mineral homeostasis: Bone is the reservoir of calcium (Ca++). 99% of body calcium is stored in the bone and released in the plasma when required. The optimum Ca++ balance (10-11 mg/dL of blood) maintenance is very essential and it is regulated by the action of calcitonin, active vitamin D and parathyroid hormones.

Calcium homeostasis

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