B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water


Classification of bones

Long bones

(i)Greater in length compared to their width.
(ii) Consisting of a shaft and a variable number of extremities (ends) that is called epiphysis (consisting of spongy bone tissue).
(iii) The diaphysis of the long bones is composed of compact bone tissue.
(iv) Slightly curved due to their strength
Example: Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and phalanges.

Short bones

(i)Nearly equal in length and width.
(ii) Cube shapes.
(iii) Consisting of spongy bone tissue.
(iv) The surface is covered with a thin layer of compact bone tissue.
Example: Carpal bones, tarsal bones, trapezoid

Flat bones

Thin bones, composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue covering a layer of spongy bone tissue.
Example: Cranial bones, sternum, ribs, scapulae.

Irregular bones

(i)The shape can't be defined as any specific shaped bones.
(ii) The ratio of compact and spongy bones also varies remarkably.
Example: Vertebrae, hip bones, certain facial bones, calcaneus.

Sesamoid bones

(i)Looks like sesame seeds.
(ii) Developed in certain tendons, where considerable friction and physical stress are there.
Example: Palms and soles.

Classification of bones, based on location

Small bones located in the joints (sutures) between cranial bones. The no of Sutural bones varies from person to person

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