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B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Bones

Characteristics of human bones

Skull

(i) Rests on the upper of the vertebral column
(ii) It's bony structure is divided into two parts: cranium and face
(iii) The bones of cranium are one frontal bone (bone of forehead that forms eye socket), two parietal bones (these are from the side and roof of skull), two temporal bones (situate from the side of the head and from immovable joints, squamous mass is fan shaped), one occipital bone (this is from the back of the head and part of the base of the skull), one sphenoid bone (occupies the middle part of the base of the skull) and one ethmoid bone (occupies the anterior part of the base of the skull and helps to form nasal septum, orbital cavity and later walls of nasal cavity)
(iv) Sutural bones are present in between cranium bones
(v) the bones of face contain 14 bones: two zygomatic or cheek bones, two maxilla (forms the upper jaw and anterior part of roof of mouth, lateral wall of nasal cavity and part of floor of orbital cavity), two nasal bones (form the superior surface of bridge of nose), two lacrimal bones (form the medial walls of the orbital cavity), one vomer (forms the main part of nasal septum), two palatine bones (L shaped bones, those form posterior part of hard palate and part of lateral wall of nasal cavity), two inferior nasal conchae (form part of the lateral walls of nasal cavity) and one mandible (the only movable bone of skull).

Hyoid bones

(i) It does not articulate with other bones
(ii) It is suspended from the styloid process of temporal bones by ligaments and muscles
(iii) Located in the anterior neck between mandible and larynx
(iv) Consists of body and horns (greater and lesser).

Vertebral column (spine or spinal column or backbone)

(i) Consists of 24 separate movable bones (7 cervical, 12 thoracic and 5 lumber), irregular bones, sacrum (5 fused bones) and coccyx
(ii) The length of male vertebrate column is about 71 cm and it is 65 cm in case of female
(iii) Vertebra encloses a vertebral foramen
(iv) The ring of the bone contains two pedicles that project backward from the body and laminae
(v) The transverse processes of cervical vertebrae have a foramen through which a vertebral artery passes upwards to the brain
(vi) The atlas is the 1st cervical vertebrae and consists simply of a ring of bone with two short transverse processes
(vii) The transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae posses facets form articulation with ribs
(viii) Sacrum consists of five fused bones that form triangular of wedge-shaped bone with a concave anterior surface
(ix) Coccyx consists of four terminal vertebrae fused to form a very small triangular bone
(x) The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are separated by intervertebral discs
(xi) The intervertebral foramina is formed by half of vertebrae above and the half of the vertebrae bellow
(xii) The ligaments hold the vertebrae together and help to maintain the intervertebral discs position.

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