B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

General Pharmacology

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

An introduction to general pharmacology (cont'd...)

Various physicochemical mechanisms of drug action[Imming P et. al., 2007]

A. Ion exchange: Fluoride Acid

B. Acid binding: Magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide

C. Adsorptive: Charcoal, colestyramine

D. Astringent: Bismuth compounds

E. Surface-active: Simethicone, chlorhexidine, chloroxylene

F. Surface-active on cell membranes: Coal tar

G. Surface-active from fungi: Nystatin, amphotericin

H. Mucosal irritation: Anthrones, anthraquinones

I. Osmotically active: Lactulose, dextran 70, polygeline, glucose, electrolyte solutions, mannitol

J. Water binding: Urea, ethanol

K. UV absorbent: 4-Aminobenzoic acid derivatives

L. Reflective: Zinc oxide, titanium dioxide

M. Oxidative: Tannines, polyphenoles, dithranol, polyvidon iodide, silver nitrate, hypochlorite, permanganate, benzoylperoxide, nitroimidazoles, nitrofuranes, temoporfin (mainly via singlet oxygen, cytostatic drug), verteporfin (mainly via singlet oxygen, ophthalmic drug)

N. Reduce disulphide bridges: d-Penicillamine, N-acetyl-cysteine Complexing agents Al3+, arsenic compounds

O. Salt formation: Sevelamer

P. Modification of tertiary structure: Enfuvirtide

Other therapeutic approaches

There are other therapeutic approaches rather than drugs to treat or manage the diseases which include surgery, diet, exercise, psychological counseling etc.
Example: Gall bladder stone is removed by surgery to relief from the abdominal pain due to this, obesity is managed by controlling dies and suggesting sufficient exercise. .


[Imming P et. al., 2007] Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A, Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets, Nature publishing groups, vol. 5, 821-835, 2007.

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