B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

General Pharmacology

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

An introduction to general pharmacology (cont'd...)

Classifications of drugs according to uses/demand

Based on uses or demand, all drugs can be classified into two categories

Essential drugs

The therapeutic agents, satisfy the priority healthcare needs of the populations [Tripathi KD, 2004].

Orphan drugs

The therapeutic agents, which are used for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, cure or mitigation of a rare disease and the cost of development and marketing of the drug is not expected to be procured by selling the drug.

Examples: Sodium nitrite (angina pectoris), protamine sulfate (used to reverse the large dose of heparin), calcitonin (helps in calcium deposition in the bones, thus used to treat ospeoporosis), digoxin antibody (antidote for digitalis), triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone, T3) etc [Tripathi KD, 2004].

Note: There are few drugs, which can be purchased from the medicine shop without a prescription of a physician, are called the over the counter (OTC) drugs [Tripathi KD, 2004].

Examples are Acetaminophen (Paracetamol), Aspirin, Caffeine, Femotidine, Ibuprofen, Naproxen etc.


[Tripathi KD, 2004] Tripathi KD, Essential of Medical Pharmacology, 5th Edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Limited, 3-123, 2004.
[Rang MP et. al., 2007] Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter J M, Moore P K, Pharmacology, 5th Edition, Elsevier, 2-752, 2007.

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