B.Pharm Lab. Instruction Manuals

Pharmacology I

APHE Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Education

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacy study material

Bones and Skeleton System

Bone disease (Gout) (Rheumatoid arthritis) (Osteoarthritis) (Osteoporosis)

Cancer and music therapy

Memory of water

Memory of water (cont'd...)


Theory of 'water memory' (cont'd...)

The correlation of solvent property with time, volume and history of sample is the basis for the explanation of water memory. There are several rational explanations about how water may show different properties dependent on its previous history. A water molecule in liquid water is never at a thermodynamic minimum for any appreciable length of time. This is because there are countless energy states in water with little difference in energy between them and the natural thermal fluctuations in liquid water are easily sufficient to allow change. Water consists of a heterogeneous mixture of states with little tendency for individual molecules to reside at a thermodynamic minimum. The history of previous sample persists for more time if it is stirred with a glass rod probably because of dissolved silica, present in glass rod, is capable of forming solid silicate particles with complementary structures to dissolved solutes and macromolecules and such particles will 'remember' these complementary structures essentially forever. Mechanically induced hydrogen bond breakage may also give rise to increased hydrogen peroxide formation and such effects have been reported to last for weeks keeping the solution far from thermodynamic equilibrium which bound the molecule to produce long term oscillatory behaviour [1]. The processing of solutions also induces electric and electromagnetic effects, both of which seem to produce changes that have long lifetimes [2]. The interface of solution with silica, for example, produces high localized fields caused by the partial charges on the atoms and the small distances between the surface and first hydration layer. Moreover, the flow of polar water molecules on succession will itself create changes in electric field. In addition to the breakage of hydrogen bonds, electromagnetic fields may perturb gas or liquid interfaces, produce reactive oxygen species [3] and increase the differences in the properties between the ortho and para forms of water which will lower the dielectric constant of the water, due to the resultant partial or complete destruction of the hydrogen-bonded network. Consequently, the solubility properties of the water will change during succession and produce changes in the concentration of dissolved gases and hydrophobic molecules at interfaces thus encouraging their reaction.

Probably memory of water phenomenon is the effect of water, previously exposed to weak electromagnetic signals, on the distinctive patterns and handedness of colonies of certain bacteria. The water retains the effect for at least 20 min after exposure to the field [4]. However, there is another theory that water does not only memories the previous history, rather it can amplify the property when serially diluted, that is the basis of the mechanism of action of homeopathy medicine, which can be logically explained by the 2nd law of thermodynamic. In an experiment by Samal and Geckeler, it was found that some molecules form larger clusters on dilution which could give rise to the noticed biological action. The lifetime and size of the cluster depends on the physical and chemical property of the environment. The lifetime of a particular cluster containing specific water molecules will be not much longer than the life of individual hydrogen bonds but clusters can continue forever although with constant changing of their constituent water molecules as shown in figure 1.

memory of water
Fig. 1. The lifetimes of clusters are independent of the lifetime of individual linkages. The figure is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional phenomenon. The actual clusters of water molecules are not represented. Supposed that the star clusters (shown filled) may reform around key structures (shown as rhombuses labelled 'r', but closed ring oligomers of H2O in water). For each shifting cluster two units (filled circles) move to break up the existing cluster and help create a new cluster. The new clusters are identical to the old ones but only contain a proportion of the water molecules. Clusters may reform around any of the star arms.


[1] David J. Anick, John A. Ives, "The silica hypothesis for homeopathy", physical chemistry, vol. 96, no. 3, 96, pp. 189-195, July 2007.
[2] Masumi Yamashita, Chris Duffield, William A. Tiller, "Direct Current Magnetic Field and Electromagnetic Field Effects on the pH and Oxidation?Reduction Potential Equilibration Rates of Water. 1. Purified Water", Langmuir, vol. 19, no. 17, pp 6851-6856, 2003.
[3] Colic M, Morse D, "The elusive mechanism of the magnetic 'memory' of water", Colloids Surf. A, vol. 154, pp. 167-174, 1999.
[4] E. Ben Jacob, Y. Aharonov and Y. Shapira, "Bacteria harnessing complexity", Biofilms, vol. 1, no. 4, pp 239-263, 2004 doi:10.1017/S1479050505001596.

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